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Histories of modern science often begin with the heroic battle between Galileo and the Catholic Church, which ignited the Scientific Revolution and led to the world-changing discoveries of Isaac Newton. Virtually nothing is said about the European scholars who came before. In reality, more than a millennium before the Renaissance, a succession of scholars paved the way for the discoveries for which Galileo, Newton, and others are often credited. In Before Galileo, John Freely examines the pioneering research of the first European scientists, many of them monks whose influence ranged far beyond the walls of the monasteries where they studied and wrote. One of the earliest of them, Saint Bede, writing a thousand years before Galileo, was so renowned that two centuries after his death a Swiss monk wrote that "in the sixth day of the world [God] has made Bede rise from the West as a new Sun to illuminate the whole Earth." Before Galileo trenchently fills a notable gap in the history of science, and places the great discoveries of the age in their rightful context.
Eclipsing Variables - What They can Tell Us and What We can do with Them The aim of the present book will be to provide an introduction to the inter pretation of the observed light changes of eclipsing binary stars and their analysis for the elements of the respective systems. Whenever we study the properties of any celestial body - be it a planet or a star - all information we wish to gain can reach us through two different channels: their gravitational attraction, and their light. Gravitational interaction between our Earth and its celestial neighbours is, however, measurable only at distances of the order of the dimensions of our solar system; and the only means of communication with the realm of the stars are their nimble-footed photons reaching us - with appropriate time-lag - across the intervening gaps of space. As long as a star is single and emits constant light, it does not constitute a very revealing source of information. A spectrometry of its light can disclose, to be sure, the temperature (colour, or ionization) of the star's semi-transparent outer layers, their chemical composition, and prevalent pressure (through Stark effect) or magnetic field (Zeeman effect), it can disclose even some information about its absolute luminosity or rate of spin. It cannot, however, tell us anything about what we should like to know most - namely, the mass or size (i.e., density) of the respective configuration; its absolute dimensions, or its internal structure.
NBC News "Top Science and Tech Books of the Year” selection Scientific American/FSG "Favorite Science Books of the Year” selection Nature.com "Top Reads of the Year” selection Kirkus Reviews "Best Books of the Year” selection Discover magazine "Top 5 Summer Read” "A masterful balance of science, history and rich narrative.” --Discover magazine "Hirshfeld tells this climactic discovery of the expanding universe with great verve and sweep, as befits a story whose scope, characters and import leave most fiction far behind.” --Wall Street Journal "Starlight Detectives is just the sort of richly veined book I love to read--full of scientific history and discoveries, peopled by real heroes and rogues, and told with absolute authority. Alan Hirshfeld’s wide, deep knowledge of astronomy arises not only from the most careful scholarship, but also from the years he’s spent at the telescope, posing his own questions to the stars.” --DAVA SOBEL, author ofA More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the Cosmos andLongitude In 1929, Edwin Hubble announced the greatest discovery in the history of astronomy since Galileo first turned a telescope to the heavens. The galaxies, previously believed to float serenely in the void, are in fact hurtling apart at an incredible speed: the universe is expanding. This stunning discovery was the culmination of a decades-long arc of scientific and technical advancement. In its shadow lies an untold, yet equally fascinating, backstory whose cast of characters illuminates the gritty, hard-won nature of scientific progress. The path to a broader mode of cosmic observation was blazed by a cadre of nineteenth-century amateur astronomers and inventors, galvanized by the advent of photography, spectral analysis, and innovative technology to create the entirely new field of astrophysics. From William Bond, who turned his home into a functional observatory, to John and Henry Draper, a father and son team who were trailblazers of astrophotography and spectroscopy, to geniuses of invention such as Léon Foucault, and George Hale, who founded the Mount Wilson Observatory, Hirshfeld reveals the incredible stories--and the ambitious dreamers--behind the birth of modern astronomy. Alan Hirshfeld, Professor of Physics at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and an Associate of the Harvard College Observatory, is the author ofParallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos, The Electric Life of Michael Faraday, andEureka Man: The Life and Legacy of Archimedes.
From microbial to plant ecosystems, this book examines how changes in UV radiation, caused by anthropogenic ozone depletion, as well as changes in radiation levels throughout the evolution of life on Earth, can alter species composition and interspecies competitiveness. It focuses on the evolutionary aspects of the effects of UV as well as the various synergistic interactions of UV radiation with other environmental factors. Because our knowledge of UV effects on whole ecosystems is still at a relatively early stage, an important part of each chapter is an overview of future research directions and indications of where new date and knowledge is needed.
Paras Prasad s text provides a basic knowledge of a broad range of topics so that individuals in all disciplines can rapidly acquire the minimal necessary background for research and development in biophotonics. Introduction to Biophotonics serves as both a textbook for education and training as well as a reference book that aids research and development of those areas integrating light, photonics, and biological systems. Each chapter contains a topic introduction, a review of key data, and description of future directions for technical innovation. Introduction to Biophotonics covers the basic principles of <ul> <li>Optics<br /> </li> <li>Optical spectroscopy<br /> </li> <li>Microscopy</li> </ul> <p>Each section also includes illustrated examples and review questions to test and advance the reader s knowledge. Sections on biosensors and chemosensors, important tools for combating biological and chemical terrorism, will be of particular interest to professionals in toxicology and other environmental disciplines. Introduction to Biophotonics proves a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in engineering, chemistry, and the life sciences.</p>
This comprehensive reference work illustrates the state of the art of laser-induced analytical methods in environmental and life sciences via an interdisciplinary approach. Ky techniques for remote sensing in the atmosphere as well as diagnostic methods for soil, water and air contamination and exhaled breath are described. Each a prominent scientist, the authors report on their current research; demonstrate that multi-disciplinary applications are possible; and employ examples on how existing environmental diagnostic methods have found their way into the life sciences.
Light, more than any other physical phenomenon, lies at the heart of almost every aspect of life. To give just one example: photosynthesis, which converts sunlight into usable energy, creates the calories that sustain you, the oxygen you breathe, even the ozone layer that protects you from dangerous radiation. Biochemist Michael Gross takes us on a fascinating, far reaching exploration of light and life, ranging from the big bang to the impact of a single photon on the human retina. Light and Life ranges from the formation of the solar system and the conditions that allowed life to arise on earth, to the ever-deepening interaction between light and life in all its myriad forms. In a breezy and informative style, Gross explains the "oxygen revolution," when photosynthesis changed not only life but the planet itself (by pumping oxygen into the atmosphere and creating the ozone layer, among other things). He describes the workings of chloroplasts, and the most bizarre aspect of light's relationship to life: bioluminescence, the generation of light by plants and animals (from the flashlight fish, which hunts with its own high-beams, to a photoplankton that lights up to attract predators of its predators). Gross is at his most illuminating as he explores the relationship of the human body to light, from the structure of the eye, to vitamin D synthesis, to circadian rhythms. He concludes with a thoughtful rumination on the historically central place of the sun and light in human cultures. Packed with eye-catching illustrations and boxed features on important scientific topics, Light and Life is science writing at its brightest.
Cutting-edge coverage of nanobiophotonics Written by global experts, Nanobiophotonics offers in-depth details on this emerging, cross-disciplinary field. After discussions on cancer cell biology, electromagnetic fields, and nanophotonics, the book delves into nanobiophtoonics technologies and current research areas. This pioneering work covers the latest nanoscale and superresolution medical imaging methods and biomedical applications. Nanobiophotonics covers: Tissue pathology Light scattering by inhomogeneous media Nonlinear optics Vision restoration Optical low-coherence interferometric techniques Plasmonics and metamaterials Infrared spectroscopic imaging Scattering, absorbing, and modulating nanoprobes for coherence imaging Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen-based systems Plasmon resonance energy transfer nanospectroscopy Erythrocyte nanoscale flickering as a marker for disease Superresolution far-field fluorescence microscopy
This book covers the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues of varying degrees of organization. The problems of biomedical diagnostics are considered. Scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells is modeled for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus). An analytic theory is provided which is based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It allows the accurate analysis of interference effects arising from the partial superposition of scattered waves. Treated topics of mathematical modeling are: optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers, heating blood vessel under laser irradiation incident on the outer surface of the skin and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures at the example of human skin.
This new book offers research and updates on the chemical process in liquid and solid phases. The collection of topics in this book reflect the diversity of recent advances in chemical processes with a broad perspective that will be useful to scientists as well as graduate students and engineers. The book will help to fill the gap between theory and practice in industry.
This thesis presents a theoretical and experimental approach for the rapid fabrication, optimization and testing of holographic sensors for the quantification of pH, organic solvents, metal cations, and glucose in solutions. Developing non-invasive and reusable diagnostics sensors that can be easily manufactured will support the monitoring of high-risk individuals in any clinical or point-of-care setting. Sensor fabrication approaches outlined include silver-halide chemistry, laser ablation and photopolymerization. The sensors employ off-axis Bragg diffraction gratings of ordered silver nanoparticles and localized refractive index changes in poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and polyacrylamide films. The sensors exhibited reversible Bragg peak shifts, and diffracted the spectrum of narrow-band light over the wavelength range λpeak ≈ 495-1100 nm. Clinical trials of glucose sensors in the urine samples of diabetic patients demonstrated that they offer superior performance compared to commercial high-throughput urinalysis devices. Lastly, a generic smartphone application to quantify colorimetric tests was developed and tested for both Android and iOS operating systems. The sensing platform and smartphone application may have implications for the development of low-cost, reusable and equipment-free point-of-care diagnostic devices.
The subject of optogenetics is comprehensively covered in this book, including physical, chemical, and biological topics of light-sensing proteins and their application in biological systems, particularly in neuroscience and medicine and the related opto-electronics. Optogenetics is a new technology that combines genetics and optics. It enables one to manipulate or measure the function of identified cells or neurons in a tissue by light with an accuracy in the range of milliseconds, even in a freely moving animal. Optogenetics has already become a powerful tool for revealing the neural mechanisms underlying behavior and analyzing various physiological phenomena. It is also expected to become useful for treating neural dysfunctions such as Parkinson disease and for the development of a brain-machine interface. This book should be read by any scientist or student performing research in any way related to optogenetics. As a milestone publication on optogenetics, this book will serve as a compass for any researcher, from beginners to experts, to explore this uncharted world.
This volume demonstrates the novel possibilities in sensing and imaging offered by the assembly of organic dyes into nanoparticles and nanocomposites and by the application of strongly fluorescent noble metal clusters and conjugated polymers.
Applied Photochemistry encompasses the major applications of the chemical effects resulting from light absorption by atoms and molecules in chemistry, physics, medicine and engineering, and contains contributions from specialists in these key areas. Particular emphasis is placed both on how photochemistry contributes to these disciplines and on what the current developments are. The book starts with a general description of the interaction between light and matter, which provides the general background to photochemistry for non-specialists. The following chapters develop the general synthetic and mechanistic aspects of photochemistry as applied to both organic and inorganic materials, together with types of materials which are useful as light absorbers, emitters, sensitisers, etc. for a wide variety of applications. A detailed discussion is presented on the photochemical processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere, including discussion of important current aspects such as ozone depletion. Two important distinct, but interconnected, applications of photochemistry are in photocatalytic treatment of wastes and in solar energy conversion. Semiconductor photochemistry plays an important role in these and is discussed with reference to both of these areas. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species are of major importance in many chemical, biological and medical applications of photochemistry, and are discussed in depth. The following chapters discuss the relevance of using light in medicine, both with various types of phototherapy and in medical diagnostics. The development of optical sensors and probes is closely related to diagnostics, but is also relevant to many other applications, and is discussed separately. Important aspects of applied photochemistry in electronics and imaging, through processes such as photolithography, are discussed and it is shown how this is allowing the increasing miniaturisation of semiconductor devices for a wide variety of electronics applications and the development of nanometer scale devices. The final two chapters provide the basic ideas necessary to set up a photochemical laboratory and to characterise excited states. This book is aimed at those in science, engineering and medicine who are interested in applying photochemistry in a broad spectrum of areas. Each chapter has the basic theories and methods for its particular applications and directs the reader to the current, important literature in the field, making Applied Photochemistry suitable for both the novice and the experienced photochemist.
The determination of the concentrations of molecules in samples has long been an important application of spectroscopy. In the last 20 years advances in algorithms, computers, instruments, and software have led to a growing interest in this field. These developments mean samples and analytes that were once considered intractable are increasingly yielding usable calibrations. The purpose of this book is to give readers, without an advanced math background, a thorough grounding in the theory and practice of modern quantitative spectroscopic analysis. The author has placed great emphasis on providing the reader with everything they need to know to obtain a fundamental understanding of quantitative spectroscopy. · Relevant theory is explained in an easy to understand, conversational style. · Actual spectroscopic data and calibrations are used throughout the book to show how real world calibrations are achieved. · The complexities of Factor Analysis (PCR/PLS) algorithms are explained in pictures and words, making them understandable for all. · Written from a spectroscopic rather than a mathematical point of view. · Relevant theory is interspersed with practical discussions in order to make difficult concepts easier to comprehend · It is a comprehensive introduction for novices, and an excellent reference for experts. · Topics on spectroscopy are included to emphasize its importance in quantitative spectroscopy
Electrochemistry affects several relevant research subjects of physics, chemistry and biology such as the transformation of materials, the transfer of information (especially in living systems), or the conversion and storage of energy. In addition, electrochemical processes constitute a major class of chemical reactions both in the laboratory and on large industrial scales. While conventional analytical electrochemistry provides excellent methods to determine concentrations (e.g. in sensor technology), to yield energy data in the form of redox potentials and to elucidate formal reaction mechanisms via kinetic analysis, these techniques alone are often not immediately suitable to identify unknown species which are formed as intermediates or as products in a redox reaction. The combination of reaction-oriented electrochemistry with species-focussed spectroscopy in spectroelectrochemistry can solve this problem and thus allow for a more complete analysis of electron transfer processes and complex redox reactions. Many research groups from various sub-fields of the chemical sciences have engaged in recent years in using and developing this combined methodology. While the technique has been well developed during the last few decades, its application in various fields of chemistry has only recently become more widespread. Readily accessible, inexpensive equipment and lower barriers to application have contributed to this situation and, at the same time, it is becoming less and less acceptable in chemical research to assign redox transformations without spectral evidence. Spectroelectrochemistry has therefore evolved as a powerful yet usually inexpensive technique which yields mechanistic (chemistry), energy-relevant (electro) as well as electronic structure information (spectro). The whole range of the electromagnetic spectrum can be employed from x-ray absorption to NMR spectroscopies. Yet while the method has become more commonplace, there are still aspects to be considered which require sound knowledge and experience. This book serves as a guide and as an illustration of the kind of research where spectroelectrochemistry can make a difference in the understanding of redox reactions through identification of their intermediates and products. Relevant examples involving UV-VIS-NIR and IR absorption spectroscopy as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) are presented in this book with the objective to illustrate the potential and the applications of this technique and to provide practical information. The topics covered include: "organometallics "coordination compounds (mixed-valent complexes, metalloporphyrins) "compounds of biochemical interest such as iron-containing proteins The breadth and variety of reactions and materials covered are complemented by the straightforward interpretation of results in the understanding of redox reactions. The solutions available from the spectroelectrochemical investigation in the book do not only provide simultaneous reaction analysis and species identification but also an assessment of electronic situations and of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer. The book aims to familiarise the scientific community with this method by describing the experimental approaches possible and by pointing out under what diverse circumstances this technique can be useful. This book is essential reading for experts and newcomers alike to acquaint themselves with this simple, inexpensive, yet powerful method and it will also appeal to scientists from all chemical sub-fields who have a basic understanding and experience in electrochemistry.
Superbly organized and of great pedagogic value, 'Spectroscopy in Catalysis' describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron, ion, and vibrational spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, temperature-programmed techniques, diffraction, and microscopy. With the focus on practical use, rather than theory, each chapter presents current applications to illustrate the type of information that the technique provides and evaluates its possibilities and limitations, allowing selection of the best catalyst and the correct technique to solve a given problem. This third edition includes significant new developments and case studies, with all the chapters updated by way of recent examples and relevant new literature. For students and for everyone who wants a digestible introduction to catalyst characterization. From reviews of the previous editions: 'This is a truly valuable book ... very useful for industrial practitioners who need to be aware of the type of information that can be obtained from modern surface spectroscopies .... The book has a superb pedagogic value...' Journal of Catalysis '... this is an excellent text on spectroscopies in catalysis and I highly recommend it for ... introductory courses on heterogeneous catalysis or as a general introductory monograph.' Journal of the American Chemical Society
Scientists and engineers have long relied on the power of imaging techniques to help see objects invisible to the naked eye, and thus, to advance scientific knowledge. These experts are constantly pushing the limits of technology in pursuit of chemical imaging—the ability to visualize molecular structures and chemical composition in time and space as actual events unfold—from the smallest dimension of a biological system to the widest expanse of a distant galaxy. Chemical imaging has a variety of applications for almost every facet of our daily lives, ranging from medical diagnosis and treatment to the study and design of material properties in new products. In addition to highlighting advances in chemical imaging that could have the greatest impact on critical problems in science and technology, "Visualizing Chemistry" reviews the current state of chemical imaging technology, identifies promising future developments and their applications, and suggests a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements.
This monograph describes cement clinker formation. It covers multicomponent systems, clinker phase structures and their reactions with water, hydrate composition and structure, as well as their physical properties. The mineral additions to cement are described as are their influence on cement-paste properties. Special cements are also discussed. The microstructure of concrete is then presented, and special emphasis is given to the role of the interfacial transition zone, and the corrosion processes in the light of cement-phase composition, mineral additions and w/c ratio. The admixtures' role in modern concrete technology is described with an emphasis on superplasticizer chemistry and its cement-paste rheological modification mechanism. Cement with atypical properties, such as calcium aluminate, white, low energy and expansive cements are characterized. The last part of the book is devoted to special types of concrete such as self compacting and to reactive powders.
There has been great progress and increase in demand for medical imaging. The aim of this book is to capture all major developments in all aspects of medical imaging. As such, this book consists of three major parts: medical physics which includes 3D reconstructions, image processing and segmentation in medical imaging, and medical imaging instruments and systems. As the field is very broad and growing exponentially, this book will cover major activities with chapters prepared by leaders in the field.This book takes a balanced approach in providing coverage of all major work done in the field, and thus provides readers a clear view of the frontier activities in the field. Other books may only focus on instrumentation, physics or computer algorithms. In contrast, this book contains all components so that the readers will obtain a full picture of the field. At the same time, readers can gain some deep insights into certain special topics such as 3D reconstruction and image enhancement software systems involving MRI, ultrasound, X-ray and other medical imaging modalities.
Starting from first principles, this reference treats the theoretical aspects of quantum optics. It develops a unified approach for determining the dynamics of a two-level and three-level atom in combinations of quantized field under certain conditions.
This work presents the mathematical methods widely used by workers in the field of quantum optics. It deals with the physical assumptions which lead to the models and approximations employed, but the text is meant to give a firm grounding in those techniques needed to derive analytical solutions to problems. Based on teachings by the authors, most of the text has been tested on students.
Increasing possibilities of computer-aided data processing have caused a new revival of optical techniques in many areas of mechanical and chemical engi neering. Optical methods have a long tradition in heat and mass transfer and in fluid dynamics. Global experimental information is not sufficient for de veloping constitution equations to describe complicated phenomena in fluid dynamics or in transfer processes by a computer program. Furthermore, a detailed insight with high local and temporal resolution into the thermo and fluiddynamic situations is necessary. Sets of equations for computer program in thermo dynamics and fluid dynamics usually consist of two types of formulations: a first one derived from the conservation laws for mass, energy and momentum, and a second one mathematically modelling transport processes like laminar or turbulent diffusion. For reliably predicting the heat transfer, for example, the velocity and temperature field in the boundary layer must be known, or a physically realistic and widely valid correlation describing the turbulence must be avail able. For a better understanding of combustion processes it is necessary to know the local concentration and temperature just ahead of the flame and in the ignition zone.
This is the first of a two-volume presentation on current research problems in quantum optics, and will serve as a standard reference in the field for many years to come. The book provides an introduction to the methods of quantum statistical mechanics used in quantum optics and their application to the quantum theories of the single-mode laser and optical bistability. The generalized representations of Drummond and Gardiner are discussed together with the more standard methods for deriving Fokker-Planck equations.
This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between "More Moore" and "More than Moore" are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.
Plasmonics has already revolutionized molecular imaging, cancer research, optical communications, sensing, spectroscopy, and metamaterials development. This book is a collective effort by several research groups to push the frontiers of plasmonics research into the emerging area of harnessing and generation of photon angular momentum on micro- and nanoscales. It offers a glimpse into the ongoing research efforts to develop new types of plasmonic vortex-pinning platforms and chiral nanostructures for light harvesting, bio(chemical) sensing, drug discovery, and nanoscale energy transfer.
Presents the theoretical calculations, experimental data, and underlying physics of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES). This book explains the many-body effects in XPS and XAS as well as several theories.
A comprehensive introduction to the burgeoning field of photonics<br /> The field of photonics is finding increasing applications across a broad range of industries. While many other books provide an overview of the subject, Fundamentals of Light Sources and Lasers closes a clear gap in the current literature by concentrating on the principles of laser operation as well as providing coverage of important concepts necessary to fully understand the principles involved. The scope of the book includes everything a professional needs to get up to speed in the field, as well as all the material necessary to serve as an excellent introductory laser course for students.<br /> Ideal for self-study as well as structured coursework, the book offers thorough coverage of:<br /> ∗ The nature of light and atomic emission<br /> ∗ Basic quantum mechanics and laser processes<br /> ∗ Cavity optics, fast-pulse production, and nonlinear optical phenomena<br /> ∗ Laser technology, including visible gas lasers, UV gas lasers, infrared gas lasers, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and tunable dye lasers<br /> Extensive real-world case studies are included to help readers appreciate the practical applications of the material covered. <p>∗An Instructor′s Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.</p>
Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers, and researchers.
In Laser Physics the interaction of radiation and matter, and the principles of laser operation are treated at a level suitable for fourth-year undergraduate courses or introductory graduate courses in physics, chemistry or engineering. The factors which determine efficiency, wavelength coverage, output power, and beam quality of the different classes of laser are treated both in terms of fundamental theory and practical construction aspects. Details of established types of solid-state, semiconductor, and gas lasers are examined together with the techniques that enable their output to be converted widely across the spectrum. The latest advances in high power fibre lasers, femtosecond lasers, and X-ray lasers are explained. The text is liberally illustrated with more than 300 diagrams. An extensive bibliography is provided, together with numerical problems in each chapter. Solutions are available via the web. To request a copy of the Solutions Manual, visit: http://global.oup.com/uk/academic/physics/admin/solutions
This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, including the latest progress and cutting-edge achievements. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could therefore be adopted as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, and may serve as a highlyinformative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas.
Preparation of Liquid Crystalline Elastomers, by F. Brömmel, D. Kramer, H. FinkelmannApplications of Liquid Crystalline Elastomers, by C. Ohm, M. Brehmer und R. ZentelLiquid Crystal Elastomers and Light, by Peter Palffy-MuhorayElectro-Opto-Mechanical Effects in Swollen Nematic Elastomers, by Kenji UrayamaThe Isotropic-to-Nematic Conversion in Liquid Crystalline Elastomers, by Andrija Lebar, George Cordoyiannis, Zdravko Kutnjak und Bostjan ZalarOrder and Disorder in Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers, by Wim H. de Jeu und Boris I. Ostrovskii
Focusing on the applied and basic aspects of confined liquid crystals, this book provides a current treatise of the subject matter and places it in the broader context of electrooptic applications. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the
<b>The comprehensive, practical book that explores the principles, properties, and applications of electrical polymers</b> <p>The electrical properties of polymers present almost limitless possibilities for industrial research and development, and this book provides an in-depth look at these remarkable molecules. In addition to traditional applications in insulating materials, wires, and cables, electrical polymers are increasingly being used in a range of emerging technologies.</p> <p>Presenting a comprehensive overview of how electrical polymers function and how they can be applied in the electronics, automotive, medical, and military fields, <i>Polymers for Electricity and Electronics: Materials, Properties, and Applications</i> presents intensive and accessible coverage with a focus on practical applications. Including examples of state-of-the-art scientific issues, the book evaluates new technologies-such as light emitting diodes, molecular electronics, liquid crystals, nanotechnology, optical fibers, and soft electronics-and explains the advantages of conductive polymers as well as their processibility and commercial uses.</p> <p>This book is an essential resource for anyone working with, or interested in, polymers and polymer science. In addition, appendices that detail the electrical properties of selected polymers as well as list additional ASTM and corresponding international testing standards and methods for testing electrical properties are also included.</p>
Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femtosecond lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.
This book provides a multidisciplinary perspective (ranging from chemistry to physics and biology) of the current research and applications of organic and hybrid photonic crystals. The authors detail the chemical and physical tools used to develop organic photonic crystals, explain methods for engineering new nano-structures, and propose novel physical phenomena or technological applications based on such materials. Organic and Hybrid Photonic Crystal lasers, sensors, photovoltaic devices and stimuli responsive devices are discussed.