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RefWorks 2.0 Guide: How to Use RefWorks at Case: Write-N-Cite

Information on getting started using RefWorks at Case Western Reserve University

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Creating Bibliographies


Write-N-Cite is a utility that allows users to run an abbreviated version of RefWorks within their word processor. With Write-N-Cite, references can be cited with the click of a button. The Write-N-Cite utility can be downloaded from within the RefWorks Tools area. For detailed instructions about creating a bibliography using Write-N-Cite, go to this page. You can also create a bibliography from a list of references and then simply copy and paste them at the end of your paper.


Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference appears. RefWorks does not actually create the footnote in the document, but is used to insert and format the citations. You create the footnote using your word processor. To insert a citation in a footnote:

  • Create the footnote from within your word processor. In Word 2000, choose Footnote from the Insert menu. From the Footnote and Endnote dialog box, set the appropriate options.
  • Insert the RefWorks RefID number in the footnote using double curly brackets {{  }}. When you create the bibliography, RefWorks inserts the reference into the footnote in the correct format. If appropriate for the output format you can also create a bibliography at the end of the paper, in addition to the footnotes.
  • To view the results in your Word document, make sure you are using print layout view (on the Word menubar, click View and then select Page Layout)

Inserting Page Numbers into In-text Citations

Some output styles require that a specific page be included in an in-text citation.  Others require that the author name be left out of the citation if the name is included in the text.  RefWorks cannot determine a specific page number for a reference or know when an author name is in the text.  You can, however, manually instruct the program to exclude or include certain items in the citation through the use of in-text switches. The switches include:

  • /f     Following text (including page numbers).  This switch is used to place text at the end of a specific reference citation.  You could use this switch to add page numbers after the author and year information.  Your citation would look like this, {{1 Smith 2003/f p. 43}}.  After formatting it would be, (Smith 2003 p. 43).
  • /y     Suppress the year field.  This switch is used to hide the year field of a specific reference.  Your citation should look like this, {{1 Smith 2003/y}} where the RefId number is 1.  After formatting it would be, (Smith).
  • /a     Suppress the author field.  This switch is used to hide the Primary Author field for a specific reference.  Your citation should look like this, {{1 Smith 2003/a}} After formatting it would be, (2003).
  • /h     Hidden text.  This switch is used to hide an entire citation.  This switch takes precedence over all other switches.  It will not only hide the reference it is attached to, but all other references in the specific citation location as well.  The hidden references will, however, still be included in the bibliography.  A hidden citation would look like this, {{1 Smith 2003/h}}.  When formatted it would not appear at all.
  • /p     Preceding text.  This switch is used to place text in front of a specific reference citation.   All text up to the next switch or the end of the reference citation is used as the preceding text, including spaces and tab characters.  Your citation would look like this, {{1 Smith 2003/pUnpublished work by }}.  After formatting the citation would be (Unpublished work by Smith 2003).

Creating Bibliographies with RefWorks

There are 3 ways to create a bibliography from within RefWorks.

  1. Select reference to use from a folder and click on the Bibliography button, Select your output style, and choose whether you want your bibliography as a webpage, Word document, or a text file.
  2. Choose a document that has already been written, and translate the in-text citations to form a bibliography.
  3. Use the Write-N-Cite program while writing your document to create in-text citations.  When your paper is completed, select the Bibliography button and put the in-text citations in the proper format for the sytle you are using.  A bibliography will be automatically generated based on the in-text citations you have used in your document.