Kelvin Smith Library
The first step in the systematic review process is to choose an appropriate research question. It's important to create a clear and unambiguous research question with sharply defined parameters, because this will determine the inclusion and exclusion criteria for your review. The most common approach is to use what's called the PICO Model.
C: Comparison (optional)
This model was developed for work with medical research and is most appropriate for evaluating quantitative studies. There are alternative methods that may be more appropriate for other disciplines and qualitative studies.
For qualitative studies, researchers sometimes use the similarly named PICo Model.
I: Phenomenon of Interest
The SPIDER Model is another approach to formulating a research question that takes into account study type and design.
PI: Phenomenon of Interest
R: Research Type