How women coped with both formal barriers and informal opposition to their entry into the traditionally masculine field of engineering in American higher education. Engineering education in the United States was long regarded as masculine territory. For decades, women who studied or worked in engineering were popularly perceived as oddities, outcasts, unfeminine (or inappropriately feminine in a male world). In Girls Coming to Tech!, Amy Bix tells the story of how women gained entrance to the traditionally male field of engineering in American higher education. As Bix explains, a few women breached the gender-reinforced boundaries of engineering education before World War II. During World War II, government, employers, and colleges actively recruited women to train as engineering aides, channeling them directly into defense work. These wartime training programs set the stage for more engineering schools to open their doors to women. Bix offers three detailed case studies of postwar engineering coeducation. Georgia Tech admitted women in 1952 to avoid a court case, over objections by traditionalists. In 1968, Caltech male students argued that nerds needed a civilizing female presence. At MIT, which had admitted women since the 1870s but treated them as a minor afterthought, feminist-era activists pushed the school to welcome more women and take their talent seriously. In the 1950s, women made up less than one percent of students in American engineering programs; in 2010 and 2011, women earned 18.4% of bachelor's degrees, 22.6% of master's degrees, and 21.8% of doctorates in engineering. Bix's account shows why these gains were hard won.
This book presents the findings of a survey that analyzes a unique set of data in science and technolog and provides a clear and simple synthesis of heterogeneous databases on the gender gap in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) setting, helping readers understand key trends and developments. The need for more women in innovative fields, particularly with regard to STEM-based innovations, has now been broadly recognized. The book provides insights into both the education and employment of women in STEM. It investigates how the gender gap has evolved among STEM graduates and professionals around the world, drawing on specific data from public and private databases. As such, the book provides readers an understanding of how the so-called 'leaky pipeline' operates, and of how more women than men drop out of STEM studies and jobs by geographical area.
The Bold and the Braveinvestigates how women have striven throughout history to gain access to education and careers in science and engineering. Author Monique Frize, herself an engineer for over 40 years, introduces the reader to key concepts and debates that contextualize the obstacles women have faced and continue to face in the fields of science and engineering. She focuses on the history of women's education in mathematics and science through the ages, from antiquity to the Enlightenment. While opportunities for women were often purposely limited, she reveals how many women found ways to explore science outside of formal education. The book examines the lives and work of three women -Sophie Germain, Mileva Einstein, and Rosalind Franklin - that provide excellent examples of how women's contributions to science have been dismissed, ignored or stolen outright. She concludes with an in-depth look at women's participation in science and engineering throughout the twentieth century and the current status of women in science and engineering, which has experienced a decline in recent years. To encourage more young women to pursue careers in science and engineering she advocates re-gendering the fields by integrating feminine and masculine approaches that would ultimately improve scientific and engineering endeavours.
A clearly explained analysis of the extent to which computer culture and language presents a barrier for women considering work in computing. The author develops her discussion into whether there might be more fundamental factors that deter women. The framework helps the reader to think about how women may be able to use computers creatively in the future and to take an equal role with men in the dramatic developments yet to come.
The phenomenal true story of the black female mathematicians at NASA at the leading edge of the feminist and civil rights movement, whose calculations helped fuel some of America's greatest achievements in space--a powerful, revelatory contribution that is as essential to our understanding of race, discrimination, and achievement in modern America as Between the World and Me and The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. The basis for the smash Academy Award-nominated film starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monae, Kirsten Dunst, and Kevin Costner. Before John Glenn orbited the earth, or Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, a group of dedicated female mathematicians known as "human computers" used pencils, slide rules and adding machines to calculate the numbers that would launch rockets, and astronauts, into space. Among these problem-solvers were a group of exceptionally talented African American women, some of the brightest minds of their generation. Originally relegated to teaching math in the South's segregated public schools, they were called into service during the labor shortages of World War II, when America's aeronautics industry was in dire need of anyone who had the right stuff. Suddenly, these overlooked math whizzes had a shot at jobs worthy of their skills, and they answered Uncle Sam's call, moving to Hampton, Virginia and the fascinating, high-energy world of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Even as Virginia's Jim Crow laws required them to be segregated from their white counterparts, the women of Langley's all-black "West Computing" group helped America achieve one of the things it desired most: a decisive victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War, and complete domination of the heavens. Starting in World War II and moving through to the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement and the Space Race, Hidden Figures follows the interwoven accounts of Dorothy Vaughan, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson and Christine Darden, four African American women who participated in some of NASA's greatest successes. It chronicles their careers over nearly three decades they faced challenges, forged alliances and used their intellect to change their own lives, and their country's future.
In the 1940s and 50s, when the newly minted Jet Propulsion Laboratory needed quick-thinking mathematicians to calculate velocities and plot trajectories, they didn't turn to male graduates. Rather, they recruited an elite group of young women who, with only pencil, paper, and mathematical prowess, transformed rocket design, helped bring about the first American satellites, and made the exploration of the solar system possible. For the first time, Rise of the Rocket Girls tells the stories of these women--known as "human computers"--who broke the boundaries of both gender and science. Based on extensive research and interviews with all the living members of the team, Rise of the Rocket Girls offers a unique perspective on the role of women in science: both where we've been, and the far reaches of space to which we're heading.
In Right Stuff, Wrong Sex, Margaret A. Weitekamp shows how the Woman in Space program - conceived by Dr. William Randolph Lovelace and funded by world-famous pilot and businesswoman Jacqueline Cochran - challenged prevailing attitudes about women's roles and capabilities. In examining the experiences of the Fellow Lady Astronaut Trainees (as the candidates called themselves), this book documents the achievements and frustrated hopes of a remarkable group of women whose desire to serve their country fell victim to their country's suspicion of - and hostility to - such aspirations.
In recent years, the stories of black women in scientific and mathematical fields have finally emerged from the shadows of history to inspire new generations of Americans. Through engaging main text filled with quotes from prominent figures, readers understand how black women who pursued careers in science and math helped shape the history of the world and continue to shape its future. Eye-catching photographs make this complex and influential topic easily relatable, while informative sidebars provide a thorough investigation of powerful women in powerful careers.
Discover the trials & triumphs of great female inventors Astrolabe Automatic Dishwasher Barbie Doll Buffered Aspirin COBOL Cotton Gin Disposable Phone Drip Coffeemaker Fabric Softener Sheets Hang Glider IV Fluids Jell-O Kevlar Mars Rover Nystatin PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) Protease Inhibitors Rolfing Smallpox Variolation Space Suit Spic & Span Tract Housing Vacuum Canning Windshield Wipers Zig-Zag Sewing Machine Zovirax and many, many more! Reviews for Mothers of Invention by Ethlie Ann Vare and GregPtacek "It's a fascinating and gratifying book..It gives us a positiveview of women's inventiveness, from the frivolous to thenoble." -The New York Times Book Review "It is the wide spectrum of female humanity and ability in thisbook that makes it an especially valuable addition to the growingpopular library on the accomplishments and work lives ofwomen." -Los Angeles Times "An informative collection of talent, trivia, and history, Mothersof Invention will interest most anyone. More importantly, though,it will serve to inspire girls and women of all ages. For thatreason, it belongs on the shelves of schools and public librarieseverywhere." -Tampa Tribune "Wonderful..A book to be dipped into and sampled at one'sleisure." -The Chicago Biweekly "This fascinating volume will find a place in the browsing sectionsof both adult and YA collections.recommended." -Library Journal One of the "Best Books for Young Adults," American Library Association, 1988
Packed with fascinating biographical sketches of female engineers, this chronological history of engineering brightens previously shadowy corners of our increasingly engineered world's recent past. In addition to a detailed description of the diverse arenas encompassed by the word 'engineering' and a nuanced overview of the development of the field, the book includes numerous statistics and thought provoking facts about women's roles in the achievement of thrilling scientific innovations. This text is a unique resource for students launching research projects in engineering and related fields, professionals interested in gaining a broader understanding of how engineering as a discipline has been impacted by events of global significance, and scholars of women's immense, often obscured, contributions to scientific progress.
Women in Engineering: Pioneers and Trailblazers introduces the visionary women who opened the door for today s female engineers. Pioneers such as Emily Roebling, Kate Gleason, Edith Clarke, and Katherine Stinson come to life in this anthology of essays, articles, lectures, and reports. In this book, the significant contributions women have made to engineering, in areas as diverse as construction management, environmental protection, and industrial efficiency, are finally placed in their proper historical context. Studies on women engineers in the 1920s and in the years following World War II, underscore how far women have progressed in engineering, and how far they have to go. With selections that span a century of historical and social analysis, Women in Engineering: Pioneers and Trailblazers and its companion volume, Women in Engineering: Professional Life, present a range of perspectives on women in engineering that will be of interest to historians, engineers, educators, and students. About the Author Margaret E. Layne, P.E., is project director of Advance VT, a program created at Virginia Tech to increase the participation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers.