Research and statistics support the view that current programs are failing to keep women in the ICT field. Currently, there exist very few solutions to this growing problem. Women in IT in the New Social Era: A Critical Evidence-Based Review of Gender Inequality and the Potential for Change aims to bring this topic to the forefront of discussion about what can be done to correct this lopsided gender distribution. This reference work will be an essential guide for government professionals, students, and researchers in the ICT field looking to develop a solution to equalize the retention rate of women in these related fields.
There is ample literature detailing lack of interest girls particularly in their later teen years show in computing generally and the subsequent decline in the number of women entering the IT workforce. In 2007, to address this problem, we trialled a new and revolutionary program designed to excite girls' interest in Information Technology (IT); we called our program 'Digital Divas'. As far as we know there has only been one other longer term intervention program which was run in the United Kingdom, designed to change girls' perceptions of IT. Our program was unique because it ran in schools as part of the school curriculum. The underlying philosophy of Digital Divas was that if we provided educationally sound materials that tapped into the interest of girls, delivered in all-girl classes within the school curriculum we could change girls' perceptions of IT careers. The pilot program was a success and this led us to design a larger project the outcomes of which are the subject of this book. The authors all have backgrounds in secondary teaching and three also have an IT background. The project ran for three years and was implemented in nine secondary schools in Victoria and one in New South Wales. Digital Divas ran usually as an elective over 10-12 weeks or a school semester and all the class were girls only. Many of the schools elected to run the program for more than one semester. We collected a significant amount of pre and post qualitative and quantitative data from both teachers and students at the school. We also conducted a number of focus groups at the schools one or two years after the girls had undertaken Digital Divas. As a result of the data collected we are able to conclusively demonstrate among other things that such a program can increase girls' self-efficacy with IT, change their stereotypical image of IT being only for men and boys and have them seriously consider IT as a career option. This book details the rationale and motivation we had for designing Digital Divas, the evaluation planning and framework which underpinned both the design of the program and the research, the research approach and data gathered and the results. We also discuss the wider impact of the program. Finally wed reflect on what has been learned, the things that worked, those that did not and what surprised us in the hope that others may benefit from our experience.
Computing remains a heavily male-dominated field even after twenty-five years of extensive efforts to promote female participation. The contributors to Women and Information Technology look at reasons for the persistent gender imbalance in computing and explore some strategies intended to reverse the downward trend. The studies included are rigorous social science investigations; they rely on empirical evidence--not rhetoric, hunches, folk wisdom, or off-the-cuff speculation about supposed innate differences between men and women. Taking advantage of the recent surge in research in this area, the editors present the latest findings of both qualitative and quantitative studies. Each section begins with an overview of the literature on current research in the field, followed by individual studies. The first section investigates the relationship between gender and information technology among preteens and adolescents, with each study considering what could lead girls' interest in computing to diverge from boys'; the second section, on higher education, includes a nationwide study of computing programs and a cross-national comparison of computing education; the final section, on pathways into the IT workforce, considers both traditional and nontraditional paths to computing careers.
Following his blockbuster biography of Steve Jobs, The Innovators is Walter Isaacson's revealing story of the people who created the computer and the Internet. It is destined to be the standard history of the digital revolution and an indispensable guide to how innovation really happens. What were the talents that allowed certain inventors and entrepreneurs to turn their visionary ideas into disruptive realities? What led to their creative leaps? Why did some succeed and others fail? In his masterly saga, Isaacson begins with Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron's daughter, who pioneered computer programming in the 1840s. He explores the fascinating personalities that created our current digital revolution, such as Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing, John von Neumann, J.C.R. Licklider, Doug Engelbart, Robert Noyce, Bill Gates, Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, Tim Berners-Lee, and Larry Page. This is the story of how their minds worked and what made them so inventive. It's also a narrative of how their ability to collaborate and master the art of teamwork made them even more creative. For an era that seeks to foster innovation, creativity, and teamwork, The Innovators shows how they happen.
It has been upon the shoulders of giants that the modern world has been forged. This accessible compendium presents an insight into the great minds responsible for the technology which has transformed our lives. Each pioneer is introduced with a brief biography, followed by a concise account of their key contributions to their discipline. The selection covers a broad spread of historical and contemporary figures from theoreticians to entrepreneurs, highlighting the richness of the field of computing. Suitable for the general reader, this concise and easy-to-read reference will be of interest to anyone curious about the inspiring men and women who have shaped the field of computer science.
This book contains stories of women engineers paths through the golden age of microelectronics, stemming from the invention of the transistor in 1947. Provides insight into womens early contributions to the field of microelectronics and celebrates the challenges they overcame; Presents compelling innovations from academia, research, and industry into advances, applications, and the future of microelectronics; Includes a fascinating look into topics such as nanotechnologies, video games, analog electronics, design automation, and neuromorphic circuits
In early 1945, the United States military was recruiting female mathematicians for a top-secret project to help win World War II. Betty Jean Jennings (Bartik), a twenty-year-old college graduate from rural northwest Missouri, wanted an adventure, so she applied for the job. She was hired as a ¿computer" to calculate artillery shell trajectories for Aberdeen Proving Ground, and later joined a team of women who programmed the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), the first successful general-purpose programmable electronic computer. In 1946, Bartik headed up a team that modified the ENIAC into the first stored-program electronic computer.
Even with her talents, Bartik met obstacles in her career due to attitudes about women¿s roles in the workplace. Her perseverance paid off and she worked with the earliest computer pioneers and helped launch the commercial computer industry. Despite their contributions, Bartik and the other female ENIAC programmers have been largely ignored. In the only autobiography by any of the six original ENIAC programmers, Bartik tells her story, exposing myths about the computer¿s origin and properly crediting those behind the computing innovations that shape our daily lives.
When grace Hooper retired as a rear admiral from the U.S. Navy in 1986, she was the first woman restricted line officer to reach flag rank and, at the age of seventy-nine, the oldest serving officer in the Navy. A mathematician by training who became a computer scientist, the eccentric and outspoken Hoper helped propel the Navy into the computer age. She also was a superb publicist for the Navy, appearing frequently on radio and television and quoted regularly in newspapers and magazines. Yet in spite of all the attention she received, until now "Amazing Grace," as she was called, has never been the subject of a full biography. Kathleen Broome Williams looks at Hooper's entire naval career, from the time she joined the Waves and was sent in 1943 to work on the Mark 1 computer at Harvard, where she became one of the country's first computer programmers. Thanks to this early Navy introduction to computing, the author explains, Hooper had a distinguished civilian career in commercial computing after the war, gaining fame for her part in the creation of COBOL. The admiral's Navy days were far from over, however, and Williams tells how Hopper--already past retirement age--was recalled to active duty at the Pentagon in 1967 to standardize computer-programming languages for Navy computers. Her temporary appointment lasted for nineteen years while she standardized COBOL for the entire department of defense. Based on extensive interviews with colleague and family and on archival material never before examined, this biography not only illuminates Hopper's pioneering accomplishments in a field that came to be dominated by men, but provides a fascinating overview of computing from its beginnings inWorld War II to the late 1980s.