Since its inception in 1968, software engineering has undergone numerous changes. In the early years, software development was organized using the waterfall model, where the focus of requirements engineering was on a frozen requirements document, which formed the basis of the subsequent design and implementation process. Since then, a lot has changed: software has to be developed faster, in larger and distributed teams, for pervasive as well as large-scale applications, with more flexibility, and with ongoing maintenance and quick release cycles. What do these ongoing developments and changes imply for the future of requirements engineering and software design? Now is the time to rethink the role of requirements and design for software intensive systems in transportation, life sciences, banking, e-government and other areas. Past assumptions need to be questioned, research and education need to be rethought. This book is based on the Design Requirements Workshop, held June 3-6, 2007, in Cleveland, OH, USA, where leading researchers met to assess the current state of affairs and define new directions. The papers included were carefully reviewed and selected to give an overview of the current state of the art as well as an outlook on probable future challenges and priorities. After a general introduction to the workshop and the related NSF-funded project, the contributions are organized in topical sections on fundamental concepts of design; evolution and the fluidity of design; quality and value-based requirements; requirements intertwining; and adapting requirements practices in different domains.
This timely handbook represents the latest thinking in the field of technology and innovation management, with an up-to-date overview of the key developments in the field. The editor provides with a critical, introductory essay that establishes the theoretical framework for studying technology and innovation management The book will include 15-20 original essays by leading authors chosen for their key contribution to the field These chapters chart the important debates and theoretical issues under 3 or 4 thematic headings The handbook concludes with an essay by the Editor highlighting the emergent issues for research The book is targeted as a handbook for academics as well as a text for graduate courses in technology and innovation management
When engineers, computer scientists, and economists need to learn how to read, think about, and create proofs, they turn to Solow. In order to make the material more relevant, the exercises in each chapter have been revised and expanded. New and more complete discussions are included on how to use a previously-proved proposition in both the forward and backward processes. The fifth edition also presents new, self-contained chapters on uniqueness, induction, either/or, and max/min methods. Several final examples of how to read and do proofs are included in the final chapter to reinforce the reader's knowledge of the various proof techniques.
Characterization, Modeling, and Performance of Geomaterials contains 27 peer-reviewed papers presented at the GeoHunan International Conference, Challenges and Recent Advances in Pavement Technologies and Transportation Geotechnics, which took place in Changsha, Hunan, China from August 3 to 6, 2009. This Geotechnical Special Publication showcases recent developments and advancements in geotechnical and pavement engineering, and offers insights into future directions for geoengineering in the 21st century. The topics covered in this proceedings examine innovations in design and construction techniques for professionals in pavement, geotechnical, geoenvironmental, and geomechanical disciplines, and include: Advances in Unsaturated Soil, Seepage, and Environmental Geotechnics Geosynthetics Geo-environmental Engineering NDT Testing of Infrastructure Materials Bridge Approach Embankment This publication will be valuable to professors of geotechnical engineering, students, design engineers, contractors, and others involved in geotechnical and pavement engineering.
Through theory, solved examples, and problems, this book helps students acquire the foundation needed to pursue advanced studies. It also helps practitioners understand the source of many of the formulas they use in their designs.
The years after World War Two have seen a widespread fascination with the free market. In this book, Michael W. Clune considers this fascination in postwar literature. In the fictional worlds created by works ranging from Frank O'Hara's poetry to nineties gangster rap, the market is transformed, offering an alternative form of life, distinct from both the social visions of the left and the individualist ethos of the right. These ideas also provide an unsettling example of how art takes on social power by offering an escape from society. American Literature and the Free Market presents a new perspective on a number of wide ranging works for readers of American post-war literature.
Whether watching political candidates quote Jesus or tracking court cases on how the stories of Adam and Eve should be taught in schools, we are surrounded by the legacy of the Bible in our contemporary world. Every person needs to know the core Bible stories—those biblical stories that have cultural, historical, or literary significance—that lie at the foundation of Western civilization. Professor Timothy Beal argues that without knowing these core stories, we cannot fully participate in the popular, political, and especially spiritual worlds that surround us. Have you ever been told that you are the apple of someone's eye? Have you ever described a disastrous situation as the blind leading the blind or easily predicted the future by reading the writing on the wall? Unbeknownst to most of us, all these common expressions have biblical roots. In Biblical Literacy, Beal showcases the Bible stories that have most shaped history and our world and provides the key information we need to know for how to understand these profound stories. In addition, Beal delves into the important historical and cultural back-ground information so that readers can fully understand the impact of these stories on the world we live in now. For a quick and fun reference, Beal provides the reader with a complete glossary of common phrases and images that have surprising biblical origins, as well as an easily navigable glossary of biblical keywords. Whether an atheist or a churchgoer, every person will benefit from this entry-level course into the heart of the most influential book of all time.
A collection of essays that addresses issues including contested historiography, social and economic contributions of Afro-Mexicans, social construction of race and ethnic identity, forms of agency and resistance, and contemporary inquiry into ethnographic work on Afro-Mexican communities.
This collection of excerpts and stories from German author Brigitte Kronauer provides an introduction to her work for the English-speaking world. Although highly regarded in her native land, she has remained virtually unknown outwith its boundaries. The excerpts and stories are annotated and preceded by critical introductions.
Este libro analiza, en una serie de películas argentinas contemporáneas (Buenos Aires viceversa, 76 89 03, Nueve reinas, El hijo de la novia, Herencia y El juego de la silla), las interpretaciones y representaciones de la experiencia social de pérdida y desintegración nacional producida por la implementación de la globalización neoliberal en los años noventa en Argentina. El libro propone que estas películas articulan dos narrativas sociales centrales en la conceptualización de esa experiencia: la desintegración nacional es representada o bien como la cara oculta del espejismo massmediático de una Argentina próspera y global, resultado del proceso de transformaciones iniciado y activamente determinado por la última dictadura militar, o bien como consecuencia de una estafa perpetrada por el Estado contra una sociedad "inocente," seducida por la promesa de la entrada de Argentina al "primer mundo." Asimismo, estas películas dan cuenta de la desintegración de ciertas narrativas de identidad nacional, centradas en la imagen de Argentina como tierra de oportunidades y progreso y como enclave europeo en Latinoamérica. Frente a la desintegración que representan, estas películas, en su mayoría, construyen fantasías de reparación y justicia e imaginan modelos alternativos de reconstrucción comunitaria que, paradójicamente, funcionan también como modelos de reintegración nacional. GABRIELA COPERTARI es profesora en la Universidad de Case Western Reserve.
"Cadavers, camera, action!" (The New York Times Book Review). From the advent of photography in the 19th and into the 20th century, medical students, often in secrecy, took photographs of themselves with the cadavers that they dissected: their first patients. Featuring 138 of these historic photographs and illuminating essays by two experts on the subject, Dissection reveals a startling piece of American history. Sherwin Nuland, MD, said this is "a truly unique and important book [that] documents a period in medical education in a way that is matched by no other existing contribution." And Mary Roach said Dissection "is the most extraordinary book I have ever seen--the perfect coffee table book for all the households where I'd most like to be invited for coffee."
Of all the tasks you perform, perhaps none is more consequential for the performance of other tasks than paying attention. When you attend, you perceive. When you attend and perceive, you remember. When you attend, perceive, and remember, you learn. When you learn, you have the option of acting deliberately. Perceiving, thinking, learning, deciding, and acting require the constant adjustment of the attention system. The author proposes a model of the greater attention system as comprising three distinct but interdependent sub-systems: the signal system, the selection system, and the interpersonal system, with eight elements distributed among them: altering, orienting, detecting, sustaining, controlling, sharing, harmonizing, and directing. The chapters in this book develop an «attentional» analysis of meaning under the unifying framework of mental spaces theory. In addition, each chapter explores the implications of an attention based approach to meaning for research in semiotics, linguistics, and rhetoric. Data for the investigation originate from the author’s own field work carried out in cultural institutions.
The essays in this book reflect pioneering efforts to study the global movement of ideas and institutions. They deal with topics of significant contemporary importance: initiatives to address the AIDS epidemic in East Africa; to protect the peoples and ecosystems of the Amazon; to advance the "truth and reconciliation" process in South Africa and in other areas of great conflict; to promote "civil society" in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; to advocate for environmental protection in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan; and to spread Rotary Clubs and encourage "social entrepreneurship" throughout the world. These essays highlight a wide range of research, paying close attention to the realities of particular situations and to current thinking about general processes.
In God vs. Darwin, Mano Singham dissects the legal battle between evolution and creationism in the classroom beginning with the Scopes Monkey trial in 1925 and ending with an intelligent design trial in Dover, Pennsylvania, in 2005. A publicity stunt, the Scopes Monkey trial had less to do with legal precedence than with generating tourism dollars for a rural Tennessee town. But the trial did successfully spark a debate that has lasted more than 80 years and simply will not be quelled despite a succession of seemingly definitive court decisions. In the greatest demonstration of survival, opposition to the teaching of evolution has itself evolved. Attempts to completely eliminate the teaching of evolution from public schools have given way to the recognition that evolution is here to stay, that explicitly religious ideas will never be allowed in public schools, and that the best that can be hoped for is to chip away at the credibility of the theory of evolution. Dr. Singham deftly answers complex questions: Why is there such intense antagonism to the teaching of evolution in the United States? What have the courts said about the various attempts to oppose it? Sprinkled with interesting tidbits about Charles Darwin and the major players of the evolution vs. creationism debate, God vs. Darwin is charming in its embrace of the strong passions aroused from the topic of teaching evolution in schools.
Among the conflicts to break out during the Cultural Revolution in Tibet, the most famous took place in the summer of 1969 in Nyemo, a county to the south and west of Lhasa. In this incident, hundreds of villagers formed a mob led by a young nun who was said to be possessed by a deity associated with the famous warrior-king Gesar. In their rampage the mob attacked, mutilated, and killed county officials and local villagers as well as People's Liberation Army troops. This groundbreaking book, the first on the Cultural Revolution in Tibet, revisits the Nyemo Incident, which has long been romanticized as the epitome of Tibetan nationalist resistance against China. Melvyn C. Goldstein, Ben Jiao, and Tanzen Lhundrup demonstrate that far from being a spontaneous battle for independence, this violent event was actually part of a struggle between rival revolutionary groups and was not ethnically based. On the Cultural Revolution in Tibet proffers a sober assessment of human malleability and challenges the tendency to view every sign of unrest in Tibet in ethno-nationalist terms.
Between 1995 and 2007, financial elites in more than a dozen western European countries engaged in a cross-border battle to create some twenty new stock markets, many of which were explicitly modeled on the American Nasdaq. The resulting high-risk, high-reward markets facilitated wealth creation, rewarded venture capitalists, and drew major U.S. financial players to Europe. But they also chipped away at the European social compacts between national governments and citizens, opening the door of smaller company finance to the broad trend of marketization and its bounties, and further subjecting European households and family businesses to the rhythms of global capital. Elliot Posner explores the causes of Europeâe(tm)s emergence as a global financial power, addressing classic and new questions about the origins of markets and their relationship to politics and bureaucracy. In doing so, he attributes the surprising large-scale transformation of Europeâe(tm)s capital markets to the rise of the European Union as a global political force. The effect of Europeâe(tm)s financial ascendance will have major ramifications around the world, and Posnerâe(tm)s analysis will push market participants, policymakers, and academics to rethink the sources of financial change in Europe and beyond.
Two of the most important modernist artists, Marcel Proust and Andy Warhol, also developed aesthetic theories. Proust presents imaginary artists - a composer, a painter, and a novelist. Warhol made paintings and sculptures; created art history writing, fiction, and films; and sponsored a rock group. Warhol most likely never read Proust, but because their ways of thinking contrast dramatically, much can be learned about both men's art by comparing: the imaginary painting described by Proust to Warhol's Marilyn Diptych; the ways that Proust and Warhol understand art-making; how Proust and Warhol define art; and the ways that Elstir's studio differs from Warhol's factory. Also discussed is the relationship of their homosexuality to their art. Proust/Warhol: Analytical Philosophy of Art employs three key intellectual tools: the aesthetic theory of Arthur Danto, the account of Proust by Joshua Landy, and the analysis of the art of living by Alexander Nehamas. Proust/Warhol concludes with a discussion of an issue of particular importance for Warhol, the relationship between art and fashion.
A groundbreaking portrait of the intense personal and artistic relationship between Thomas Hart Benton and Jackson Pollock, revealing how their friendship changed American art. The drip paintings of Jackson Pollock, trailblazing Abstract Expressionist, appear to be the polar opposite of Thomas Hart Benton's highly figurative Americana. Yet the two men had a close and highly charged relationship dating from Pollock's days as a student under Benton. Pollock's first and only formal training came from Benton, and the older man soon became a surrogate father to Pollock. In true Oedipal fashion, Pollock even fell in love with Benton's wife. Pollock later broke away from his mentor artistically, rocketing to superstardom with his stunning drip compositions. But he never lost touch with Benton or his ideas--in fact, his breakthrough abstractions reveal a strong debt to Benton's teachings. I n an epic story that ranges from the cafés and salons of Gertrude Stein's Paris to the highways of the American West, Henry Adams, acclaimed author of Eakins Revealed, unfolds a poignant personal drama that provides new insights into two of the greatest artists of the twentieth century.
“Powerful. . . . Twisty, brimming with dark humor and keen moral insight, The Weight of Heaven packs a wallop on both a literary and emotional level. . . . Umrigar . . . is a descriptive master.” — Christian Science Monitor From Thrity Umrigar, bestselling author of The Space Between Us, comes The Weight of Heaven. In the rich tradition of the acclaimed works of Indian writers such as Rohinton Mistry, Akhil Sharma, Indra Sinha, and Jhumpa Lahiri, The Weight of Heaven is an emotionally charged story about unexpected death, unhealed wounds, and the price one father will pay to protect himself from pain and loss. Additionally, it offers unique perspectives, both Indian and American, on the fragmented nature of globalized India.