Much work has been done on cognitive processes and creativity, but there is another half to the picture of creativity -- the affect half. This book addresses that other half by synthesizing the information that exists about affect and creativity and presenting a new model of the role of affect in the creative process. Current information comes from disparate literatures, research traditions, and theoretical approaches. There is a need in the field for a comprehensive framework for understanding and investigating the role of affect in creativity. The model presented here spells out connections between specific affective and cognitive processes important in creativity, and personality traits associated with creativity. Identifying common findings and themes in a variety of research studies and descriptions of the creative process, this book integrates child and adult research and the classic psychoanalytic approach to creativity with contemporary social and cognitive psychology. In so doing, it addresses two major questions: * Is affect an important part of the creative process? * If it is, then how is affect involved in creative thinking?In addition, Russ presents her own research program in the area of affect and creativity, and introduces The Affect in Play Scale -- a method of measuring affective expression in children's play -- which can be useful in child psychotherapy and creativity research. Current issues in the creativity area are also discussed, such as artistic versus scientific creativity, adjustment and the creative process, the role of computers in learning about creativity, gender differences in the creative process, and enhancing creativity in home, school, and work settings. Finally, Russ points to future research issues and directions, and discusses alternative research paradigms such as mood-induction methods versus children's play procedures.
The aim of this book on psychotherapies with children and families is to present a comprehensive overview of the current array of intervention approaches in the child mental health field. There is a focus on the integration of theory, research, and practice throughout the book. The book proceeds from the more global pre sentations of basic theoretical approaches to applications of these approaches with specific problems and populations. It then presents more integrated intervention approaches and overviews of the research literature. One of the unique features of this book is its focus on future directions for each approach, both in clinical prac tice and in research. A second unique feature is its structured format across di verse approaches with a focus on empirical validation of approaches. Another innovation is the presentation of interventions that integrate major components of different theoretical approaches. Thus, the book reflects the current trends in the field of interventions with specific problems and populations, empirical valida tion of the approach, and the integration of treatment approaches. There are five major sections in this book. Part I consists of four chapters that address a variety of issues related to child psychotherapy. Chapter 1 by the editors examines the historical roots of child psychotherapy and explores current trends in the treatment of diverse child disorders. It emphasizes the movement to "treat ments that work" and sets the stage for the chapters that follow.
Child psychotherapy is in a state of transition. On the one hand, pretend play is a major tool of therapists who work with children. On the other, a mounting chorus of critics claims that play therapy lacks demonstrated treatment efficacy. These complaints are not invalid. Clinical research has only begun. Extensive studies by developmental researchers have, however, strongly supported the importance of play for children. Much knowledge is being accumulated about the ways in which play is involved in the development of cognitive, affective, and personality processes that are crucial for adaptive functioning. However, there has been a yawning gap between research findings and useful suggestions for practitioners. "Play in Child Development and Psychotherapy" represents the first effort to bridge the gap and place play therapy on a firmer empirical foundation. Sandra Russ applies sophisticated contemporary understanding of the role of play in child development to the work of mental health professionals who are trying to design intervention and prevention programs that can be empirically evaluated. Never losing sight of the complex problems that face child therapists, she integrates clinical and developmental research and theory into a comprehensive, up-to-date review of current approaches to conceptualizing play and to doing both therapeutic play work with children and the assessment that necessarily precedes and accompanies it.
Converging evidence suggests that pretend play in childhood has an important role in providing a foundation for adult creativity. Indeed, many of the processes central to creativity occur in pretend play. In this book, Sandra W. Russ reviews the theory and research on pretend play and creativity, including cognitive and affective processes involved in play and creativity, possible evolutionary purposes of play, and its cultural variations. In particular, she highlights the importance of pretend play in helping children to access emotional memories and fantasies. She explains how creative processes in play can be measured using the Affect in Play Scale, which she developed and is included in the volume. Additionally, she describes play interventions designed to encourage creativity in children, with transcripts of sessions from a pilot intervention. Brief case studies of creative adult scientists and artists are also presented, illustrating similarities in play processes and creative processes in adulthood. Given the need for highly developed creativity in science, engineering, and the arts, the link between pretend play and creativity is important to explore. This book explores what we know about the topic and how researchers might approach future studies in this area.