All normal human beings alive in the last fifty thousand years appear to have possessed, in Mark Turner's phrase, "irrepressibly artful minds." Cognitively modern minds produced a staggering list of behavioral singularities--science, religion, mathematics, language, advanced tool use, decorative dress, dance, culture, art--that seems to indicate a mysterious and unexplained discontinuity between us and all other living things. This brute fact gives rise to some tantalizing questions: How did the artful mind emerge? What are the basic mental operations that make art possible for us now, and how do they operate? These are the questions that occupy the distinguished contributors to this volume, which emerged from a year-long Getty-funded research project hosted by the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. These scholars bring to bear a range of disciplinary and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the relationship between art (broadly conceived), the mind, and the brain. Together they hope to provide directions for a new field of research that can play a significant role in answering the great riddle of human singularity.
For more than a decade, Clear and Simple as the Truth has guided readers to consider style not as an elegant accessory of effective prose but as its very heart. Francis-Noël Thomas and Mark Turner present writing as an intellectual activity, not a passive application of verbal skills. In classic style, the motive is truth, the purpose is presentation, the reader and writer are intellectual equals, and the occasion is informal. This general style of presentation is at home everywhere, from business memos to personal letters and from magazine articles to student essays. Everyone talks about style, but no one explains it. The authors of this book do; and in doing so, they provoke the reader to consider style, not as an elegant accessory of effective prose, but as its very heart. At a time when writing skills have virtually disappeared, what can be done? If only people learned the principles of verbal correctness, the essential rules, wouldn't good prose simply fall into place? Thomas and Turner say no. Attending to rules of grammar, sense, and sentence structure will no more lead to effective prose than knowing the mechanics of a golf swing will lead to a hole-in-one. Furthermore, ten-step programs to better writing exacerbate the problem by failing to recognize, as Thomas and Turner point out, that there are many styles with different standards. The book is divided into four parts. The first, "Principles of Classic Style," defines the style and contrasts it with a number of others. "The Museum" is a guided tour through examples of writing, both exquisite and execrable. "The Studio," new to this edition, presents a series of structured exercises. Finally, "Further Readings in Classic Prose" offers a list of additional examples drawn from a range of times, places, and subjects. A companion website, classicprose.com, offers supplementary examples, exhibits, and commentary, and features a selection of pieces written by students in courses that used Clear and Simple as the Truth as a textbook.
This book is based on a series of presentations given by Mark Turner at the University of Manouba, November 2010. It is divided into an introduction and two lectures: in the introduction, the origins of blending theory and its development are presented. Lecture One is an introduction to blending theory. Lecture Two is devoted to blending and language.
Meaning, Form, and Body brings together renowned figures in the field of cognitive linguistics to discuss two related research areas in the study of linguistics: the integration of form and meaning and language and the human body. Among the numerous topics discussed are grammatical constructions, conceptual integration, and gesture.
Why are we so innovative? Where do new ideas come from? Why are humanbeings so exceptionally good at innovation, leaving other speciesmentally in the dust? How can we hold onto new ideas once they areformed? This book explores the claim that the human spark, the source ofinnovation and the origin of ideas, was an advance that occurred in aparticular kind of mental operation, which Turner calls blending.Blending is our ability to take two ideas or more and create a new ideafrom the "blend." And what is so fascinating is how human beings areable to engage in blending almost without effort and usuallyunconsciously. It appears to be secondnature to us, how we live and breathe in the course of processinginformation and ideas.Human beings are profoundly different fromall other species in this ability. While many species can do what wecannot-fly, run amazingly fast, see in the dark--only human beings caninnovate. Beginning somewhere in the Paleolithic Age, everything changedin the course of human events. Before that, we were a bunch of largemammals. After that, we were poised to take over the world. Turner makesthe controversial and provocative claim that what made human advancespossible was the ability to engage in the virtuosity of blending, whichis everywhere apparent in our cultural record-in our creations andinnovations-it is the origin of our ideas.Turner's theoryof blending is featured in Jonah Lehrer's bestselling book, Imagine, andthis book will be the first to lay out this theory in detail for a layaudience and academics tackling the nature of the human brain and thefascinating puzzle of what it means to be human.Readership: Layreaders of popular science, books on neuroscience and creativity;students (even at a high-school level) in psychology, cognitive science,anthropology
With this volume, The Shakespearean International Yearbook inaugurates a new feature-a special section, which in this issue is 'Shakespeare in the Age of Cognitive Science.' The guest editor for the section is Mark Turner, Institute Professor, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and Interim Chair, Department of Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve University, USA.The Shakespearean International Yearbook continues to provide an annual survey of important issues and new developments in contemporary Shakespeare research. Representing truly international perspectives on Shakespeare studies, in this issue contributors come from not only the US and the UK but also Japan, Denmark, Canada, and Australia. They appraise or reappraise current thinking about such diverse matters as scepticism, ethnicity, performance, theatrical and textual practices, and translations or adaptations. Essays on the plays and poems tend to focus on 'where we are now', and what has changed, is changing, or ought to change.
The text is a transcribed version of the lectures given by Professor Mark Turner in May 2009 as the forum speaker for The 7th China International Forum on Cognitive Linguistics. It is accompanied by a DVD and Chinese guide.
Until recently, cognitive science focused on such mental functions as problem solving, grammar, and pattern-the functions in which the human mind most closely resembles a computer. But humans are more than computers: we invent new meanings, imagine wildly, and even have ideas that have never existed before. Today the cutting edge of cognitive science addresses precisely these mysterious, creative aspects of the mind.The Way We Think is a landmark analysis of the imaginative nature of the mind. Conceptual blending is already widely known in research laboratories throughout the world; this book, written to be accessible to both lay readers and interested scientists, is its definitive statement. Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner show that conceptual blending is the root of the cognitively modern human mind, and that conceptual blends themselves are continually combined and reblended to create the rich mental fabric in which we live.The Way We Think shows how this blending operates; how it is affected by (and gives rise to) language, identity, culture, and invention; and how we imagine what could be and what might have been. The result is a bold and exciting new view of how the mind works.