This book records one of the continuous attempts of the IFIP Working Group 8. 2, studying the interaction of information systems and the organization, to explore and understand the shifting boundaries and dependencies between organizational activities and their computer support. The book marks the result of the IFIP WG 8. 2 conference on "Designing Ubiquitous Information Environments: Socio-Technical Issues and Challenges. " Since its inception in the late 1970s, IFIP WG 8. 2 has sought to understand how computer-based information systems interact and must be designed as an integrated part of the organizational design. At that time, information systems handled repetitive and remote back-office functions and the main concern was work task design for repetitive input tasks and the potential impact of improved information support on organizational decision-making and structure. The focus of the information system design shifted in the 1980s when computers became part of the furniture and moved into the office. Reflecting this significant change, IFIP WG 8. 2 in 1989 organized a conference dedicated to the design and impact of desktop technology in order to examine how organizational processes and the locus of action changed when the computer was moved into the office. Sixteen years later, we are experiencing another significant change. Computers are now becoming part of our body and sensory system and will move out of the traditional office locations and into the wilderness. Again, IFIP WG 8.
Since its inception in 1968, software engineering has undergone numerous changes. In the early years, software development was organized using the waterfall model, where the focus of requirements engineering was on a frozen requirements document, which formed the basis of the subsequent design and implementation process. Since then, a lot has changed: software has to be developed faster, in larger and distributed teams, for pervasive as well as large-scale applications, with more flexibility, and with ongoing maintenance and quick release cycles. What do these ongoing developments and changes imply for the future of requirements engineering and software design? Now is the time to rethink the role of requirements and design for software intensive systems in transportation, life sciences, banking, e-government and other areas. Past assumptions need to be questioned, research and education need to be rethought. This book is based on the Design Requirements Workshop, held June 3-6, 2007, in Cleveland, OH, USA, where leading researchers met to assess the current state of affairs and define new directions. The papers included were carefully reviewed and selected to give an overview of the current state of the art as well as an outlook on probable future challenges and priorities. After a general introduction to the workshop and the related NSF-funded project, the contributions are organized in topical sections on fundamental concepts of design; evolution and the fluidity of design; quality and value-based requirements; requirements intertwining; and adapting requirements practices in different domains.
Discussion of the precise nature of the Information System discipline has raged for more than twenty years and continues fiercely today. The most interesting aspect of recent debate is not only the sharpness and depth of the arguments, but the diverse conclusions arrived at by participants. Whilst very different, these have all been reached with the genuine aim of strengthening IS scholarship, and they all add to our specific understanding of the discipline in the last two decades. Edited by two of the most prominent academics in the field, this book brings together such perspectives along with wider contextual discussion to provide a fertile ground for reflection, learning and further debate.
To stay competitive, firms need to build great products but they also need to lend these products to the uses and misuses of their customers and learn extensively from them. This is the first book to explore the idea that allowing customers to adapt features in online products or services to suit their needs is the key to viral growth.