Design considerations for low-power operations and robustness with respect to variations typically impose contradictory requirements. Low-power design techniques such as voltage scaling, dual-threshold assignment and gate sizing can have large negative impact on parametric yield under process variations. This book focuses on circuit/architectural design techniques for achieving low power operation under parameter variations. We consider both logic and memory design aspects and cover modeling and analysis, as well as design methodology to achieve simultaneously low power and variation tolerance, while minimizing design overhead. This book will discuss current industrial practices and emerging challenges at future technology nodes.
Providing a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art advanced research in the field, Polymer Physics explores the interrelationships among polymer structure, morphology, and physical and mechanical behavior. Featuring contributions from renowned experts, the book covers the basics of important areas in polymer physics while projecting into the future, making it a valuable resource for students and chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and polymer scientists as well as professionals in related industries.
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (GSP 201) contains 43 papers which examine a variety of topics in soil dynamics and earthquake engineering. This Geotechnical Special Publication is divided into three groups: the dynamic soil-structural interactions under seismic loads, the dynamic properties of soils and rocks, and seismic zoning and earthquake hazard assessment. These papers cover important issues such as the dynamic responses of earth dams, pile and pile groups, soil nailing, tunnel, landfills and shallow foundations. The papers in this publication were presented during the GeoShanghai 2010 International Conference held in Shanghai, China, June 3-5, 2010.
It's no secret that your genes have a subtle, but powerful impact on your job and career. But did you know that your DNA accounts for one third of the difference between you and your co-workers in many aspects of work life, from job satisfaction to income level? That's the revelation of this fascinating book--one that will change the way you think It's no secret that your genes have a subtle, but powerful impact on your job and career. But did you know that your DNA accounts for one third of the difference between you and your co-workers in many aspects of work life, from job satisfaction to income level? That's the revelation of this fascinating book-one that will change the way you think about the role of genetics in the workplace. Despite extensive evidence highlighting the influence of genetics in the business world, this critical connection has been glossed over by corporate leaders and management gurus. Now, for the first time, author Scott Shane explains why genes matter, and how an understanding of their relationship to behavior is of vital importance to employers, employees, and policy makers. This eye-opening resource begins with an incisive look at the basic function of genes and their effects on organizational behavior, providing a real-world analysis of how genes influence numerous aspects of our professional lives, from the jobs we choose, to how effectively we make decisions and manage people. Born Entrepreneurs, Born Leaders also delves into role that genetics plays in creativity and innovation, and focuses on how genes affect our tendency to start companies. Armed with these insights, you'll not only learn how to leverage your innate skills and personality, but you'll discover how to succeed by acting in ways contrary to your "nature." Packed with scientifically grounded insights, this phenomenal book also examines the potential use of genetic information in creating job assignments and designing incentive and training plans. Ultimately, Born Entrepreneurs, Born Leaders shows how a heightened awareness of your own-and your colleagues'-genetic predispositions can make you a better employee or employer.
We now live in a designed world and we need to develop a better understanding of how to discuss and critique its design components. The essays presented here -- selected from the preeminent journal, Design Issues -- are intended to enhance our collective understanding of the wide reach of design in the contemporary world. The book is structured to cover the life of a designed object or project from conception and fabrication to evaluation. The essays are divided into themed sections, with each section separately introduced and each concluded with further reading. The Designed World aims to break down the often rigid boundaries between history, theory and criticism. Despite the wide range of subjects discussed, the book highlights the commonalities across all aspects of design. The reader will be invaluable to students, scholars and practitioners across the field of design.
The Global Accounting History four volume set aims to establish a benchmark reference source that covers the evolution of accounting, financial reporting and related institutions for all major economies in the world in a comparable way. Volume One addresses ten European economies, including France, Germany, Italy and the UK as well as the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland. Each chapter is authored by a specialist from the country concerned.
In this volume, we examine how the institutional environment affects entrepreneurial organizations, and vice-versa. This includes not only how the institutional environment constrains both founding processes and the type of organizations founded, but also how institutional dynamics construct new entrepreneurial opportunities, empower and facilitate action, and how entrepreneurs manipulate the institutional environment to serve their own ends. This institutional approach to entrepreneurship shifts attention away from the personal traits and backgrounds of individual entrepreneurs, and towards how institutions shape entrepreneurial opportunities and actions; how entrepreneurs navigate their cognitive, normative, and regulatory environments; and how actors modify and build institutions to support new types of organizations.
Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservatism, liberalism, elitism, radicalism, devotion to religious tradition, hostility to religion--in short, for commitments to causes whose significance can be measured, in part, by the controversies they provoke. Americans have also criticized foundations for ineffectiveness and even foolishness." Their size alone conveys some sense of the significance of American foundations, whose assets amounted to over $530 billion in 2008 despite a dramatic decline of almost 22 percent in the previous year. And in 2008 foundation grants totaled over $45 billion. But what roles have foundations actually played over time, and what distinctive roles do they fill today? How have they shaped American society, how much difference do they make? What roles are foundations likely to play in the future? This comprehensive volume, the product of a three-year project supported by the Aspen Institute's program on the Nonprofit Sector and Philanthropy, provides the most thorough effort ever to assess the impact and significance of the nation's large foundations. In it, leading researchers explore how foundations have shaped--or failed to shape--each of the key fields of foundation work. American Foundations takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour, evaluating foundation efforts in education, scientific and medical research, health care, social welfare, international relations, arts and culture, religion, and social change.
Antoine Boesset (1586-1643), surintendant de la musique de la chambre to Louis XIII, has long been known as one of the most important composers active in early seventeenth-century France, but until recently he was believed to have produced only secular airs de cour. This edition presents for the first time Boesset¿s newly identified sacred works, a repertory of some seventy compositions for the nuns of the Royal Abbey of Montmartre, Paris. Scored for multiple high voices, bass and basse continue, Boesset¿s works include three complete mass ordinary settings (through composed and alternatim), Te Deums and Magnificats (again both through composed and altneratim), psalms, and a number motets for important feasts and ceremonies at Montmartre. Montmartre was also one of the first religious houses to adopt so-called ¿plain chant musical,¿ a type of newly composed or modified chant. Several works of the edition make particular use of this kind of chant, most notably the alternatim hymn settings, which use unusual metered versions of the newly composed hymn chants in alternation with the polyphony. Boesset¿s compositions for Montmartre represent by far the largest single repertory of sacred music from the reign of Louis XIII, and, while not showing the influence of the newest Italian practices, nevertheless anticipate several of the musical techniques previously associated with Henri Dumont, in particular the use of the basse continue. These works thus fill a significant gap in our understanding of musical developments in seventeenth-century France and demonstrate that sacred music of the highest quality emerged during a period that scholars have long dismissed as being of little interest.
In the two decades between its debut performance and the death of impresario Sergei Diaghilev in 1929, the Ballets Russes was an unrivalled sensation in Paris and around the world. But while scholarly attention has often centered on the links between Diaghilev’s troupe and modernist art and music, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the Ballets’ role in the area of tastemaking and trendsetting. Ballets Russes Style addresses this gap, revealing the extent of the ensemble’s influence in arenas of high style—including fashion, interior design, advertising, and the decorative arts. In Ballets Russes Style, Mary E. Davis explores how the Ballets Russes performances were a laboratory for ambitious cultural experiments, often grounded in the aesthetic confrontation of Russian artists who traveled with the troupe from St. Petersburg—Bakst, Benois, and Stravinsky among them—and the Parisian avant-garde, including Picasso, Matisse, Derain, Satie, Debussy, and Ravel. She focuses on how the ensemble brought the stage and everyday life into direct contact, most noticeably in the world of fashion. The Ballets Russes and its audience played a key role in defining Paris style, which would echo in fashions throughout the century. Beautifully illustrated, and drawing on unpublished images and memorabilia, this book illuminates the ways in which the troupe’s innovations in dance, music, and design mirrored and invigorated contemporary culture.
His "black dog"--that was how Winston Churchill referred to his own depression. Today, individuals with feelings of sadness and irritability are encouraged to "talk to your doctor." These have become buzz words in the aggressive promotion of wonder-drug cures since 1997, when the Food and Drug Administration changed its guidelines for the marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals. Black Dogs and Blue Words analyzes the rhetoric surrounding depression. Kimberly K. Emmons maintains that the techniques and language of depression marketing strategies--vague words such as "worry," "irritability," and "loss of interest"--target women and young girls and encourage self-diagnosis and self-medication. Further, depression narratives and other texts encode a series of gendered messages about health and illness. As depression and other forms of mental illness move from the medical-professional sphere into that of the consumer-public, the boundary at which distress becomes disease grows ever more encompassing, the need for remediation and treatment increasingly warranted. Black Dogs and Blue Words demonstrates the need for rhetorical reading strategies as one response to these expanding and gendered illness definitions.
Elina Gertsman's multifaceted study introduces readers to the imagery and texts of the Dance of Death, an extraordinary subject that first emerged in western European art and literature in the late medieval era. Conceived from the start as an inherently public image, simultaneously intensely personal and widely accessible, the medieval Dance of Death proclaimed the inevitability of death and declared the futility of human ambition. Gertsman inquires into the theological, socio-historic, literary, and artistic contexts of the Dance of Death, exploring it as a site of interaction between text, image, and beholder. Pulling together a wide variety of sources and drawing attention to those images that have slipped through the cracks of the art historical canon, Gertsman examines the visual, textual, aural, pastoral, and performative discourses that informed the creation and reception of the Dance of Death, and proposes different modes of viewing for several paintings, each of which invited the beholder to participate in an active, kinesthetic experience.
Celebrating the five hundredth volume, this Festschrift honors David M. Gunn, one of the founders of the Journal of Old Testament Studies, later the Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies, and offers essays representing cutting-edge interpretations of the David material in the Hebrew Bible and later literary and popular culture. Essays in Part One, Relating to David, present David in relationship to other characters in Samuel. These essays demonstrate the value of close reading, analysis of literary structure, and creative, disciplined readerly imagination in interpreting biblical texts in general and understanding the character of David in particular. Part Two, Reading David, expands the narrative horizon. These essays analyze the use of the David character in larger biblical narrative contexts. David is understood as a literary icon that communicates and disrupts meaning in different ways in different context. More complex modes of interpretation enter in, including theories of metaphor, memory and history, psychoanalysis, and post-colonialism. Part Three, Singing David, shifts the focus to the portrayal of David as singer and psalmist, interweaving in mutually informative ways both with visual evidence from the ancient Near East depicting court musicians and with the titles and language of the biblical psalms. Part Four, Receiving David, highlights moments in the long history of interpretation of the king in popular culture, including poetry, visual art, theatre, and children's literature. Finally, the essays in Part Five, Re-locating David, represent some of the intellectually and ethically vital interpretative work going on in contexts outside the U.S. and Europe.
This self-contained and user-friendly textbook is designed for a first, one-semester course in statistical signal analysis for a broad audience of students in engineering and the physical sciences. The emphasis throughout is on fundamental concepts and relationships in the statistical theory of stationary random signals, which are explained in a concise, yet rigorous presentation. With abundant practice exercises and thorough explanations, A First Course in Statistics for Signal Analysis is an excellent tool for both teaching students and training laboratory scientists and engineers. Improvements in the second edition include considerably expanded sections, enhanced precision, and more illustrative figures.
In the debates since 1945 on German history and culture, the concept of generations has become ever more prominent. Recent and ongoing shifts in how the various generations are seen -- and see themselves -- in relation to history and to each other have taken on key importance in contemporary German cultural studies. The seismic events of twentieth-century German history are no longer solely first-generational lived experiences but are also historical moments seen through the eyes of successor generations. The generation, seen as a category of memory, thus holds a key to major shifts in German identity. The changing generational perspectives of German writers and filmmakers not only reflect but also influence these trends, exposing both the expected differences between generational views and unexpected continuities. Moreover, as younger artists reframe recent history, older generations like the 1968ers are also contributing to these shifts by reassessing their own experiences and cultural contributions. This volume of new essays applies current discourse on generations in German culture to contemporary works dealing with major sociohistorical events since the Nazi period. Contributors: Svea Bräunert, Laurel Cohen-Pfister, Friederike Eigler, Thomas C. Fox, Katharina Gerstenberger, Erin McGlothlin, Brad Prager, Ilka Rasch, Susanne Rinner, Caroline Schaumann, Maria Stehle, Reinhild Steingröver, Susanne Vees-Gulani. Laurel Cohen-Pfister is Associate Professor of German at Gettysburg College, and Susanne Vees-Gulani is Assistant Professor of German and Comparative Literature at Case Western Reserve University.
Green is the Orator follows on Sarah Gridley’s brilliant first collection, Weather Eye Open, in addressing the challenge of representing nature through language. Gridley’s deftly original syntax arises from direct experience of the natural world and from encounters with other texts, including the Egyptian "Book of the Dead” and the writings of Charles Darwin, Peter Mark Roget, William Morris, William James, and Henri Bergson. Gridley’s own idiom is compressed, original, and full of unexpected pleasures. This unusual book, at once austere and full of life, reflects a penetrating mind at work--one that is thinking through and re-presenting romantic and modernist traditions of nature.
Nineteenth-century chemists were faced with a particular problem: how to depict the atoms and molecules that are beyond the direct reach of our bodily senses. In visualizing this microworld, these scientists were the first to move beyond high-level philosophical speculations regarding the unseen. In Image and Reality, Alan Rocke focuses on the community of organic chemists in Germany to provide the basis for a fuller understanding of the nature of scientific creativity. Arguing that visual mental images regularly assisted many of these scientists in thinking through old problems and new possibilities, Rocke uses a variety of sources, including private correspondence, diagrams and illustrations, scientific papers, and public statements, to investigate their ability to not only imagine the invisibly tiny atoms and molecules upon which they operated daily, but to build detailed and empirically based pictures of how all of the atoms in complicated molecules were interconnected. These portrayals of “chemical structures,” both as mental images and as paper tools, gradually became an accepted part of science during these years and are now regarded as one of the central defining features of chemistry. In telling this fascinating story in a manner accessible to the lay reader, Rocke also suggests that imagistic thinking is often at the heart of creative thinking in all fields. Image and Reality is the first book in the Synthesis series, a series in the history of chemistry, broadly construed, edited by Angela N. H. Creager, John E. Lesch, Stuart W. Leslie, Lawrence M. Principe, Alan Rocke, E.C. Spary, and Audra J. Wolfe, in partnership with the Chemical Heritage Foundation.
What, where, and when is jazz? To most of us jazz means small combos, made up mostly of men, performing improvisationally in urban club venues. But jazz has been through many changes in the decades since World War II, emerging in unexpected places and incorporating a wide range of new styles. In this engrossing new book, David Ake expands on the discussion he began in Jazz Cultures, lending his engaging, thoughtful, and stimulating perspective to post-1940s jazz. Ake investigates such issues as improvisational analysis, pedagogy, American exceptionalism, and sense of place in jazz. He uses provocative case studies to illustrate how some of the values ascribed to the postwar jazz culture are reflected in and fundamentally shaped by aspects of sound, location, and time.
Meaning, Form, and Body brings together renowned figures in the field of cognitive linguistics to discuss two related research areas in the study of linguistics: the integration of form and meaning and language and the human body. Among the numerous topics discussed are grammatical constructions, conceptual integration, and gesture.
The subject matter of this Handbook deals with one of the most challenging issues for societies in the 21st Century, namely, the social, economic and cultural changes associated with individual ageing and the rapidly growing reality of the ageing of human populations. The SAGE Handbook of Social Gerontology provides a comprehensive overview of key trends and issues in the field of ageing, drawing upon the full range of social science disciplines. The volume reflects the emergence of ageing as a global concern, drawing upon international scholars from Asia, Australasia, Europe and North America. The book is organized into five parts, each exploring different aspects of research into social aspects of ageing: #65533; Disciplinary overviews: summaries of findings from key disciplinary areas within social gerontology #65533; Social relationships and social differences: topics include social inequality, gender, religion, inter-generational ties, social networks, and friendships in later life. #65533; Individual characteristics and change in later life: examining different aspects of individual aging, including self and identity, cognitive processes, and biosocial interactions and their impact on physical and psychological aging #65533; Comparative perspectives and cultural innovations: topics include ageing and development, ageing in a global context, migration, and cross-cultural perspectives on grandparenthood #65533; Policy issues: topics include: developments in social policy, long-term care, technology and older people, end of life issues, work and retirement, crime and older people, and the politics of old age. It will be essential reading for all students, researchers and policy-makers concerned with the major issues influencing the lives of older people across the globe.
An inspiring account of America at its worst-and Americans at their best-woven from the stories of Depression-era families who were helped by gifts from the author's generous and secretive grandfather. Shortly before Christmas 1933 in Depression-scarred Canton, Ohio, a small newspaper ad offered $10, no strings attached, to 75 families in distress. Interested readers were asked to submit letters describing their hardships to a benefactor calling himself Mr. B. Virdot. The author's grandfather Sam Stone was inspired to place this ad and assist his fellow Cantonians as they prepared for the cruelest Christmas most of them would ever witness. Moved by the tales of suffering and expressions of hope contained in the letters, which he discovered in a suitcase 75 years later, Ted Gup initially set out to unveil the lives behind them, searching for records and relatives all over the country who could help him flesh out the family sagas hinted at in those letters. From these sources, Gup has re-created the impact that Mr B. Virdot's gift had on each family. Many people yearned for bread, coal, or other necessities, but many others received money from B. Virdot for more fanciful items-a toy horse, say, or a set of encyclopedias. As Gup's investigations revealed, all these things had the power to turn people's lives around- even to save them. But as he uncovered the suffering and triumphs of dozens of strangers, Gup also learned that Sam Stone was far more complex than the lovable- retiree persona he'd always shown his grandson. Gup unearths deeply buried details about Sam's life-from his impoverished, abusive upbringing to felonious efforts to hide his immigrant origins from U.S. officials-that help explain why he felt such a strong affinity to strangers in need. Drawing on his unique find and his award-winning reportorial gifts, Ted Gup solves a singular family mystery even while he pulls away the veil of eight decades that separate us from the hardships that united America during the Depression. In A Secret Gift, he weaves these revelations seamlessly into a tapestry of Depression-era America, which will fascinate and inspire in equal measure.
Space Oddities examines the representation of women in outer space films from 1960 to 2000, with an emphasis on films in which women are either denied or given the role of astronaut. Marie Lathers traces an evolution in this representation from women as aliens and/or "assistant" astronauts, to women as astronaut wives, to women as astronauts themselves. Many popular films from the era are considered, as are earlier films (from Aelita Queen of Mars to Devil Girl From Mars) and historical records, literary fiction, and television shows (especially I Dream of Jeannie). Early 1960s attempts by women pilots to enter the Space Race are considered as is the media drama surrounding the death of Christa McAuliffe. In addition to its insightful film scholarship, this is an important addition to current reassessments of the Space Race. By applying insights from contemporary gender, race, and species theories to popular imaginings of women in space, the status of the Space Race as a cultural construct that reproduces and/or warps terrestrial gender structures is revealed.
Edith Foster compares Thucydides' narrative explanations and descriptions of the Peloponnesian War in Books One and Two of the History with the arguments about warfare and war materials offered by the Athenian statesman Pericles in those same books. In Thucydides' narrative presentations, she argues, the aggressive deployment of armed force is frequently unproductive or counterproductive, and even the threat to use armed force against others causes consequences that can be impossible for the aggressor to predict or contain. By contrast, Pericles' speeches demonstrate that he shared with many other figures in the History a mistaken confidence in the power, glory, and reliability of warfare and the instruments of force. Foster argues that Pericles does not speak for Thucydides, and that Thucydides should not be associated with Pericles' intransigent imperialism.
Quantifying the timescales of current geological processes is critical for constraining the physical mechanisms operating on the Earth today. Since the Earth?s origin 4.55 billion years ago magmatic processes have continued to shape the Earth, producing the major reservoirs that exist today (core, mantle, crust, oceans and atmosphere) and promoting their continued evolution. But key questions remain. When did the core form and how quickly? How are magmas produced in the mantle, and how rapidly do they travel towards the surface? How long do magmas reside in the crust, differentiating and interacting with the host rocks to yield the diverse set of igneous rocks we see today? How fast are volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere? This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.
At the close of the nineteenth century, industrialization and urbanization marked the end of the traditional understanding of society as rooted in agriculture. Urban Modernity examines the construction of an urban-centered, industrial-based culture--an entirely new social reality based on science and technology. The authors show that this invention of modernity was brought about through the efforts of urban elites--businessmen, industrialists, and officials--to establish new science- and technology-related institutions. International expositions, museums, and other such institutions and projects helped stem the economic and social instability fueled by industrialization, projecting the past and the future as part of a steady continuum of scientific and technical progress. The authors examine the dynamic connecting urban planning, museums, educational institutions, and expositions in Paris, London, Chicago, Berlin, and Tokyo from 1870 to 1930. In Third Republic Paris, politicians, administrators, social scientists, architects, and engineers implemented the future city through a series of commissions, agencies, and organizations; in rapidly expanding London, cultures of science and technology were both rooted in and constitutive of urban culture; in Chicago after the Great Fire, Commercial Club members pursued civic ideals through scientific and technological change; in Berlin, industry, scientific institutes, and the popularization of science helped create a modern metropolis; and in Meiji-era Tokyo (Edo), modernization and Westernization went hand in hand.
Atherosclerosis and stroke are two leading causes of age-associated disability, dementia, and death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Center for Health Statistics recently reported that Alzheimer's Disease has surpassed diabetes as a leading cause of death. Alzheimer is now the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States. This book discusses the roles of oxidative stress, mitochondria failure, and cellular hypoperfusion in the pathobiology of Alzheimer Disease.